1-Sentence-Summary: No Logo uses four parts, including “No Space,” “No Choice,” “No Jobs,” and “No Logo,” to explain the growth of brand power since the 1980s, how the focus of companies on image rather than products has affected employees, and to identify those who fight against large corporations and their brands.
Read in: 4 minutes
Favorite quote from the author:
It’s virtually impossible to go anywhere and not see a logo. Advertisements and brand names constantly bombard us in our daily lives. Pretty much everyone knows Google, Nike, McDonald’s, and Disney. And the more these companies grow, the more power and influence they gain.
Around the turn of the century, a new era of globalization arrived, meaning big brands expanded and became bigger than ever. This equated to bigger-than-ever profits and a huge wave of outsourcing. Soon, there were poor working conditions and environmental ruin.
International best-seller No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies is Naomi Klein’s manifesto on the negative effects of globalization and big brands. It may have been published in 1999, but the ideas still remain important and relevant 20 years later. In her book, she uncovers the exploitative labor practices and sinister marketing techniques of multinational companies and inspires us to fight back.
These are 3 of the best lessons the book teaches:
- Having a successful brand is more about appearing cool than the actual product itself.
- Multinational companies outsource their manufacturing to developing countries and it is bad for the workers there and in the West.
- If you want to criticize a multinational giant, try targeting and subverting their brand.
Let’s get right to learning!
Lesson 1: Successful brands focus more on brand identity than their actual product.
Believe it or not, the best way to have a successful product isn’t making something that’s the highest quality. It’s about making something considered the coolest. That’s why companies spend enormous amounts of money every year trying to figure out what’s cool and incorporating this into their brand.
The reason big brands are so successful is that they concentrate on marketing and research to maintain a specific image. They know that their competitors have cheaper products, so they want to focus on building brand loyalty instead.
The brands that are the most successful are concept-driven, so they appeal to people on an emotional or spiritual level rather than a rational level. Brands want to be recognized and known for a set of values rather than for whatever product they produce.
For example, Nike spends very little money on manufacturing their items when you compare it to how much they spend on sponsorship deals, advertising, and marketing. Because of this, Nike isn’t just a sportswear company, but a company that enhances people’s lives through sports and healthy lifestyles.
It also has sought to be seen as a company that empowers both women and Black people, which is something far different from a mere sneaker manufacturer.
Lesson 2: Outsourcing isn’t just bad for workers in developing countries, it’s bad for workers everywhere.
In the 80s and 90s, many big companies began outsourcing to save on labor costs. They closed up factories in Western countries and built new ones in the developing world where the labor is cheaper. Because these workers are considered contractors rather than employees, these multinationals don’t have responsibility for them.
These factories are usually in Export Processing Zones. These are places where income and export taxes are suspended to make them enticing for businesses. However, these places have no minimum wage or labor laws. This means workers in these places have to endure terrible working conditions and even worse pay.
The majority of them are young migrant women. Corporations and governments don’t protect them, so anything goes. They endure unreasonable hours, child labor, no benefits, and wages as low as $0.13 an hour.
Outsourcing has also had a negative impact on employees in the Western world. Traditionally, these large companies would employ their own workforce and unionization allowed these employees to have relatively stable and well-paid jobs. Workers felt a loyalty to their employers.
But in the 80s, everything changed. Companies became more preoccupied with branding than the products, so they chose to spend money on marketing rather than manufacturing. These manufacturing jobs were then replaced with employment in the service sector. These jobs became known as ‘McJobs,’ and they were usually part-time and minimum wage.
In many of these workplaces, unions are strongly discouraged and work satisfaction is dismal. Employers prefer to go with young employees that require less pay and aren’t as likely to unionize. Long gone are the days when workers felt any loyalty to employers.
Lesson 3: If you want to make a difference, you can try targeting specific multinational brands to bring them down.
Whether we realize it or not, brands wield an immense amount of cultural power in our society. Persistent brainwashing burned the names and logos of these companies into our minds, making them instantly recognizable. This seems like a great thing for them, but it is also something that can be used against them fairly easily.
Brands can be brought down by this omnipresence through criticisms that are attached to their specific brand. Activists can campaign using well-known brand names to draw attention to their cause, severely damaging their image.
Campaigns against sweatshops have been given a boost when they are tied to specific brands. Showing a branded article of clothing and highlighting the adverse conditions workers who make it have to endure brings relevance to Western consumers. They can then boycott the brand until they make conditions better for these workers.
Culture jamming is another way of subverting a brand identity. This is where activists use a brand’s dominance in public settings against them. Culture jammers can use things like spray to alter advertisements and branded pictures to show another point of view.
They can take a slogan and change it slightly or touch up an image to change the meaning. For example, Nike’s famous slogan ‘Just do it’ can be rewritten ‘Just don’t do it’ or ‘Justice, do it Nike.’
No Logo Review
I’m always a big fan of any book or person with an attitude of let’s tear down the ultra-rich, so naturally, I liked No Logo. The jargon gets a bit much sometimes, but it’s not too bad and I wouldn’t write the book off just for that. It’s definitely an eye-opener that I hope a lot of people will read!
Who would I recommend the No Logo summary to?
The 57-year-old ultra-rich CEO of a multinational company, the 33-year-old who wants to learn more about how the power of big brands has changed in the last few years, and anyone that hopes to find ways to make the world a more fair place.